What was in the Library of Celsus?

2020-11-10 by No Comments

What was in the Library of Celsus?

The Library of Celsus was the third-largest library in the Roman world behind only Alexandria and Pergamum, believed to have held around twelve thousand scrolls. Celsus is buried in a crypt beneath the library in a decorated marble sarcophagus.

Why was the Library of Celsus important?

Commissioned in 114 CE by Tiberius Julius Acquila and finished by his heirs, the library was built to commemorate his father Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus who had died the same year, aged 70. The library was, therefore, also a mausoleum or heroon.

Who created the Library of Celsus?

architect Vitruoya
The library was designed by Roman architect Vitruoya, and is typical of the architectural style prevalent in the period 76-138 AD under Emperor Hadrian. It was built on a platform with nine steps spanning the full 21 m width of the building leading up to three front entrances.

How tall is the Library of Celsus?

10.90 to 16.70 meters
The Library of Celsus is probably the most distinctive building commonly associated with Ephesus. The library has a two-storey façade, and its interior is one large room with dimensions of 10.90 to 16.70 meters. This library room was located above the vaulted substructure.

How old is the library of Celsus?

The library was built by his son, Gaius Julius Aquila (Consul 110 AD), and completed in 135 AD. The library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Celsus is buried in a sarcophagus beneath the library, in the main entrance.

Who burned the library of Constantinople?

After the fall of Constantinople on 12 April 1204, the library was allegedly destroyed by the Franks and Venetians of the Fourth Crusade during the sacking of the city.

What is modern-day Ephesus called?

Ephesus, Greek Ephesos, the most important Greek city in Ionian Asia Minor, the ruins of which lie near the modern village of Selƈuk in western Turkey. Ruins of the Memmius Monument (built 1st century ce) at Ephesus, near modern-day Selçuk, Turkey.

How far back did the burning of the Library of Alexandria set humanity?

around 2000 years
Once the largest library in the ancient world, and containing works by the greatest thinkers and writers of antiquity, including Homer, Plato, Socrates and many more, the Library of Alexandria, northern Egypt, is popularly believed to have been destroyed in a huge fire around 2000 years ago and its volumous works lost.

What was lost in the Library of Alexandria?

The Head Librarian ruled the Mouseion (or “Temple to the Muses”), and a storied effort was made to collect texts from all over the world. Historians believe that eventually around 700,000 books and scrolls were accrued under the roof of the Library of Alexandria.

How old is Ephesus?

Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on a hill (now known as the Ayasuluk Hill), three kilometers (1.9 miles) from the centre of ancient Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the Seljuk castle during the 1990s).

What was lost in the burning of the library of Alexandria?

By this point, the library was most likely already gone. What was lost with the destruction of the Library of Alexandria is priceless — vast stores of manuscripts, history, and knowledge.

Where was the Celsus Library in Ephesus located?

Situated in the center of the city, in the area immediately adjacent to the agora, the Library was ordered built by T. Julius Aquila, consul in 110 A.D., in honor of his father Celsus Polemeanus, a consul in the year 92 A.D. and proconsul of Asia.

When did Julius Aquila build the Library of Celsus?

Celsus’ son, Julius Aquila, began the construction in A.D. 110. The library was completed by Julius Aquila’s successors in 135. The body of Celsus was buried beneath the ground floor in a lead container inside a marble tomb.

What was the interior of the Library of Celsus?

The interior of the building, which has yet to be restored, consisted of a single rectangular room measuring 17×11 m, with a central apse framed by a large arch at the far wall. The apse contained a podium for a statue, now lost, that likely depicted Celsus, although some scholars have suggested it was Minerva, goddess of wisdom.

How many scrolls were in the Library of Celsus?

The library contained 12,000 scrolls. In the façade, one can see several statues: allegorically, they embody the Celsus’ qualities, Sophia (wisdom), Arete (character), Ennoia (judgment), and Episteme (expertise). The choice is not very surprising: any Roman official would have claimed to possess these virtues.