What is the pathology of pericarditis?

2020-10-19 by No Comments

What is the pathology of pericarditis?

Pathophysiology of Pericarditis. Acute pericarditis develops quickly, causing inflammation of the pericardial sac and often a pericardial effusion. Inflammation can extend to the epicardial myocardium (myopericarditis). Adverse hemodynamic effects and rhythm disturbance are rare, although cardiac tamponade is possible.

Which disease is associated with pericarditis?

Pericarditis – an inflammation of the sac. It can be from a virus or other infection, a heart attack, heart surgery, other medical conditions, injuries, and certain medicines.

What are two classic findings of pericarditis?

Characteristic clinical findings in pericarditis include pleuritic chest pain and pericardial friction rub on auscultation of the left lower sternal border. Electrocardiography may reveal diffuse PR-segment depressions and diffuse ST-segment elevations with upward concavity.

What is a common complication of pericarditis?

Pericarditis may result in one of two serious complications: cardiac tamponade and chronic constrictive pericarditis. Cardiac tamponade is considered a medical emergency and, if left untreated, can quickly become fatal. It develops when too much fluid builds up between the heart muscle (myocardium) and the pericardium.

What is the prognosis for pericarditis?

Of common causes, idiopathic constrictive pericarditis has the best prognosis (88% survival at 7 years), followed by constriction due to cardiac surgery (66% at 7 years).

What are the types of pericarditis?

The main types of pericarditis include viral and bacterial pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, post-heart attack pericarditis, chronic effusive pericarditis and pericarditis following heart surgery. Treatment can include medications, bed rest or rarely surgery.

Does an ECG show pericarditis?

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is very useful in the diagnosis of acute pericarditis. Characteristic manifestations of acute pericarditis on ECG most commonly include diffuse ST-segment elevation. However, other conditions may have ECG features similar to those of acute pericarditis.

What are the long-term effects of pericarditis?

Some people with long-term (chronic) pericarditis develop permanent thickening and scarring of the pericardium, which prevents the heart from filling and emptying properly. This unusual complication often leads to severe swelling of the legs and abdomen and shortness of breath. Cardiac tamponade.

What antibiotics treat pericarditis?

Antibiotic therapy for bacterial pericarditis is prolonged, usually 4 weeks….Bacterial Pericarditis

  • Ceftriaxone (2 g IV once daily), cefotaxime (2 g every 8 hours), or gentamicin (3 mg/kg/day divided equally in 2 or 3 doses) OR.
  • ​ Cefepime (2 g IV q12h) OR.

What causes acute pericarditis?

Viral infections are likely the most common cause of acute pericarditis, but the virus may never be found. Pericarditis often occurs after a respiratory infection. Bacterial, fungal, and other infections also can cause pericarditis.

What is the pathophysiology of acute pericarditis?

Pathology and Pathophysiology of Acute Pericarditis. An inflamed pericardium shows a polymorphonuclear infiltrate on microscopy and vascularization. Inflammatory signaling may stimulate the release of fluid that could result in an effusion or fibrinous reactants that could result in a constrictive complication.

What is inflammation of the pericardium?

Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium, a thin, two-layered sac that surrounds your heart. The layers have a small amount of fluid between them to prevent friction when the heart beats. When the layers are inflamed, it can result in chest pain.

What is pericardium disease?

Pericardial disease, or pericarditis , is inflammation of any of the layers of the pericardium. The pericardium is a thin tissue sac that surrounds the heart and consists of: Visceral pericardium — an inner layer that envelopes the entire heart.