What is ADEM infection?

2021-02-14 by No Comments

What is ADEM infection?

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a neurological, immune-mediated disorder in which widespread inflammation of the brain and spinal cord damages tissue known as white matter. White matter is tissue composed of nerve fibers, many of which are covered by a collection of fats and proteins known as myelin.

Does ADEM go away?

More than 85 percent of people with ADEM recover fully within a few weeks. Most others recover within a few months. Steroid treatments can shorten the duration of an attack. A small number of people are left with mild cognitive or behavioral changes, such as confusion and drowsiness.

How is ADEM diagnosed?

ADEM Diagnosis and Tests No one test can spot ADEM. Doctors most often diagnose it with MRI (pictures of your brain made with a large magnet and radio waves) and a lumbar puncture (fluid drawn from around the spinal cord and then tested). Your doctor will try to rule out conditions with similar symptoms.

What is the difference between ADEM and MS?

ADEM generally consists of a single attack, while MS involves multiple attacks. In this instance, an MRI of the brain can help. MRIs can differentiate between older and newer lesions. The presence of multiple older lesions on the brain is more consistent with MS.

Can ADEM lead to MS?

While ADEM is typically an isolated event, a clinical presentation consistent with ADEM can be the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis in children. Around 45 percent of children with a demyelinating event will have a second event, and 20 percent of children diagnosed with ADEM will progress to MS.

Is ADEM an autoimmune disease?

ADEM is thought to be an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system mistakenly identifies its own healthy cells and tissues as foreign and mounts an attack against them. This attack results in inflammation.

Can ADEM happen twice?

ADEM usually only occurs once, sometimes twice. Multiple attacks are very rare so may require further tests and discussion to confirm the diagnosis.

How do you treat ADEM?

High dose intravenous (IV) corticosteroids (typically methylprednisolone) are the front-line treatment for ADEM. These medications are usually given over a three- to five-day course, followed or not by a tapering dose of steroids given orally (by mouth) over a few days.

How long does it take to recover from ADEM?

For most individuals, recovery begins within days, and within six months the majority of ADEM patients will have total or near total recoveries. Others may have mild to moderate lifelong impairment ranging from cognitive difficulties, weakness, loss of vision, or numbness.

Can MS cause other illnesses?

Depression and other changes in the brain can be a direct result of MS or an indirect result from the difficulty of coping with the condition. In rare or advanced cases, nerve damage can cause tremors, seizures, and cognitive problems that closely resemble other neurodegenerative conditions such as dementia.

How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis treated?

Treatment for ADEM is targeted at suppressing inflammation in the brain using anti-inflammatory drugs. Most individuals respond to several days of intravenous corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone, followed by oral corticosteroid treatment.

Which is the best definition of a disseminated infection?

A Condition Associated With a Worsening of Symptoms. A disseminated infection is one in which a localized infection spreads (disseminates) from one area of the body to other organ systems.

How is disseminated disease similar to localized disease?

Similarly, one can view metastatic cancer as a disseminated infection in that it has extended into the bloodstream or into the lymphatic system and thus “seeded” distant sites (a process known as metastasis). Disseminated disease is often contrasted with localized disease.

How are disseminated infections different from neoplastic diseases?

Disseminated infections are different from disseminated neoplastic diseases. While both can spread from a primary site to a secondary site, neoplastic diseases are those that involve the growth of abnormal cells (neoplasia). Cancer is a prime example.

Which is an example of a disseminated STI?

Some of the more common examples include: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can readily disseminate from the primary site (such as the genitals, anus, or mouth) to other parts of the body if left untreated. Some of the most serious forms include disseminated syphilis and gonorrhea.